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Acoustic Neuroma

Hearing loss in one ear, ringing in the ear, dizziness and loss of balance—these are all signs of an acoustic neuroma, or vestibular schwannoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition can help prevent serious complications from developing later.
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Adrenal Tumors

The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system, the system that produces hormones that regulate and manage the body’s growth, metabolism and sexual function. Located on top of the kidneys, the adrenal glands are divided into to regions that produce different hormones.
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Appendix Cancer

Tumors of the appendix are rare and often first present with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Tumors found in the appendix are rare and may or may not be cancerous. Most tumors in the appendix are noncancerous and, because of their location and slow growth, often cause no symptoms.
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Basal Cell Carcinoma

An estimated 2.8 million cases of basal cell carcinoma are diagnosed every year. It’s extremely rare for basal cell carcinoma to spread to other parts of the body, and it’s rarely life threatening.
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Bladder Cancer

More than 73,000 Americans were expected to develop bladder cancer in 2012, making this cancer the sixth most common cancer in the United States. Bladder cancer forms in the tissues of the bladder—the hollow, muscular organ that holds and stores urine in the body.
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Blood Disorders

Blood disorders prevent blood from doing its job effectively and can affect the red blood cells (those that carry oxygen throughout the body), white blood cells (those that fight infection), platelets (the cells that help blood clot) or plasma (the liquid that carries blood cells).
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Bone Cancer

Bone cancer is a cancerous tumor of the bone that grows and compresses normal bone tissue. Primary bone cancer (cancer than begins in the bones) is much less common than cancer that spreads to the bones from elsewhere in the body (metastatic).
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Brain Tumors, Metastatic

It’s estimated that each year more than 170,000 patients are diagnosed with brain metastases—or cancer that has started elsewhere in the body and spread to the brain— according to the National Brain Tumor Society. Brain metastases are the most common type of brain cancer.
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Brain Tumors, Primary

It’s estimated that glial cell tumors, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas account for about 38 percent of all primary brain tumors—or those that originate in the brain, rather than spread from elsewhere in the body—according to the National Cancer Institute.
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Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women. Although rarer, breast cancer can also occur in men. Breast cancer forms in tissues of the breast. Ductal carcinoma, which begins in the cells that line the tubes that carry milk to the nipple, is the most common type of breast cancer, affecting about 7 in 10 women with the disease.
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Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin

Also called CUP, cancer of unknown primary origin comprises about 2 percent of all cancer cases, according to the American Cancer Society. Cancer spreads from the part of the body where the cancer started, called the primary site. Sometimes, secondary tumors are found before the primary tumor, and the location where the cancer started can’t be determined. Doctors can identify the tumor as a metastasis, or cells that have spread from elsewhere in the body, because the cells do not look like those of the organ or tissue in which they were found.
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Carcinoid Tumors

Typically found in the gastrointestinal system, carcinoid cancer can also occur in the pancreas and lungs. Carcinoid tumors are a subset of tumors called neuroendocrine tumors, typically affecting parts of the gastrointestinal tract, such as the appendix, stomach, small intestine, colon and rectum. This type of cancer tends to be slow growing.
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Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer was once one of the most common causes of cancer death for American women. The main reason for the improvement in cervical cancer outcomes in the United States is the use of Pap screening, which enables early diagnosis of precancerous cells.
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Colorectal Cancer

Often referred to together as colorectal cancer, colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), and rectal cancer is cancer of the last few inches of the colon. It most often begins as precancerous (polyps) on the inside lining of the colon.
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Disseminated Peritoneal Adenomucinosis (DPAM)

DPAM is a type of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP), a rare disease characterized by mucus-secreting tumors in the abdomen. It develops after a small growth (polyp) in the appendix bursts through the appendix wall, spreading tumor cells.
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Endometrial & Other Uterine Cancers

Uterine cancers occur in the uterus. The most common type, endometrial cancer, starts in the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium. Uterine cancer is a form of gynecologic cancer, or any cancer that starts in a woman's reproductive organs. Other types of gynecologic cancer include cervical, ovarian, vaginal and vulvar cancers.
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Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal cancer begins in the esophagus—a 10-inch-long muscular tube located in the chest that helps move food through the digestive tract to the stomach. There are two main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell (typically found in the upper part of the esophagus) and adenocarcinoma (usually found in the lower portion of the esophagus, near the stomach).
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Gallbladder & Bile Duct Cancers

The gallbladder is located in the upper abdomen and stores bile, which aids digestion; the bile duct transports bile, and links the liver and the gallbladder to the small intestine. The most common type of gallbladder and bile duct cancers are adenocarcinomas, which form in cells that line these parts of the body.
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Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

While they can occur anywhere in this system, the majority of GISTs start in the stomach. Not all GISTs are cancerous. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, or GISTs, are rare tumors that occur in the GI tract—specifically, in special cells that line the tract.
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Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of rare tumors that involve abnormal growth of cells inside a woman’s uterus. GTD start in the cells that would normally develop into the placenta during pregnancy. Most GTDs are not cancerous and don’t invade deeply into body tissues or spread to other parts of the body; however, some may be cancerous and require treatment.
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Head & Neck Cancers

Head and neck cancers tend to start in the squamous cells that line the moist (mucosal) surfaces inside the head and neck—for example, in the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands (uncommon) and throat.
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Kidney Cancer

For unknown reasons, the incidence of kidney cancer seems to be rising. In 2011, more than 56,000 Americans were diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma. While there are different types of cancer that start in the kidneys, renal cell carcinoma, which forms in the lining of the kidney tubules, is the most common type.
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Leukemia

In people with leukemia, bone marrow makes abnormal white blood cells. The abnormal cells are leukemia cells. It has four main types: acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Other types include hairy cell leukemia, chronic myelomoncytic leukemia and juvenile melomonocytic leukemia.
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Liver Cancer

Liver cancer is one of the few cancers in the United States that’s on the rise, affecting the largest organ in the body and the one responsible for filtering out harmful substances, among other tasks.
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Liver Metastases (Secondary Liver Cancer)

Secondary liver cancer—or metastatic liver cancer—begins in another part of the body (it may have originated in the colon, breast, esophagus, pancreas, stomach or lung, for example) and spreads to the liver. Primary liver cancer, on the other hand, is cancer that began in the liver.
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Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States today. There are two main types of lung cancer: non-small cell lung cancer, and small cell lung cancer.
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Lymphoma (Hodgkin Disease)

Lymphomas are types of blood cancer that affect your lymphatic system—part of the immune system. There are two main types: Hodgkin disease (Hodgkin lymphoma) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma is found in the lymph nodes (small, round masses of tissue that are instrumental in helping your body fight germs and infections), spleen, liver and bone marrow. While Hodgkin lymphoma can start almost anywhere, it's usually first discovered in the lymph node above the diaphragm.
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Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin)

Lymphomas are types of blood cancer that affect your lymphatic system—part of the immune system. There are two main types: Hodgkin disease (Hodgkin lymphoma) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
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Melanoma

Curable if caught early, melanoma can invade healthy tissue and spread to other parts of the body if not treated. Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer (basal cell and squamous cell are the other two main types) that usually presents as a mole that changes size, shape or color.
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Merkel Cell Carcinoma

While Merkel cell carcinoma is still relatively uncommon, the number of cases diagnosed is increasing. Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive skin cancer that appears to be something more harmless—a cyst or a pimple, for example.
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Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is an uncommon for of cancer that arises from the lining of the lung (pleura). The most common risk factors for developing mesothelioma are a known exposure to asbestos and smoking. Most patients tend to be older and of male gender.
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Multiple Myeloma

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that starts in the plasma cells (the white blood cell-producing cells that make antibodies) of bone marrow. Tumors that form in the solid bone as a result of multiple myeloma can damage bone and make it difficult for the bone marrow to make normal red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
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Myelodysplastic Syndrome

MDS refers to a group of disorders in which bone marrow and its stem cells can’t adequately make healthy blood cells (the blood cells are poorly formed or dysfunctional). For 1 in 3 people with MDS, the condition can lead to an aggressive bone marrow cancer called acute myeloid leukemia.
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Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is the ninth most common cancer in women. Because of the tendency to be diagnosed in the later stages, ovarian cancer is the fifth most deadly. Ovarian cancer is a form of gynecologic cancer, or any cancer that starts in a woman’s reproductive organs. Other types of gynecologic cancer include cervical, uterine, vaginal and vulvar cancers.
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Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer begins in the pancreas (the organ responsible for helping to break down essential nutrients and for producing certain hormones) and is categorized into two main types: exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cancer. Exocrine pancreatic cancer is much more common and begins in gland cells. Endocrine tumors are also known as islet cell tumors or neuroendocrine tumors and occur much more rarely.
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Pancreatic Cysts

There are three major types of pancreatic cysts. Pseudocysts are the most common type of pancreatic cyst and are often the result of pancreatitis. Other cyst types include benign forms (serous cystadenoma), premalignant (mucinous cystadenoma, IPMN) as well as malignant forms (cystadenocarcionoma).
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Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer starts in the prostate gland—a structure that is about the size of a walnut and responsible for making seminal fluid, which helps carry sperm out of the body during ejaculation.
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Sarcoma

Although relatively rare, sarcoma can occur in any location in the body. Most often found in the head, neck, arms, legs, trunk and abdomen, sarcoma is a type of cancer that arises from the soft tissues of the body. These soft tissues include muscles, tendons, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves and tissues that surround the joints.
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Skin Cancer

Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States, affecting more than 2.1 million people, according to National Cancer Institute statistics. Skin cancer presents in three main forms: basal cell, squamous cell and melanoma. Basal cell is the most common type of cancer in those with fair skin, while squamous cell is most often found in people with darker skin. These types of cancer are less likely to spread to other parts of the body than melanoma.
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Stomach Cancer

While the overall incidence of gastric cancer is decreasing in the United States, the incidence of gastric cancer near the esophagus (gastroesophageal junction) is increasing. Stomach (gastric) cancer starts in the stomach and comes in several forms. The most common type is adenocarcinoma.
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Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is the most common form of cancer in men ages 15 to 35. Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that grows in the tissues of one or both testicles, glands that are located in the scrotum. Most cases of testicular cancer start out in the sperm-making cells known as germ cells. There are two main types: seminoma and nonseminoma. The first is slow-growing while the second tends to be more aggressive.
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Thyroid Cancer

With nearly 2 in 3 cases in people younger than 55, thyroid cancer is commonly diagnosed at a younger age than most adult cancers. Thyroid cancer develops in the thyroid, a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the throat that’s responsible for making hormones to control heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and weight. There are four main types of thyroid cancer: papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic.
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Thymoma & Other Thymic Tumors

Thymoma and thymic tumors originate from the thymus gland, which is located in the upper anterior portion of the chest. These tumors can be slow-growing or locally aggressive.
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Vulvar and Vaginal Cancers

Vulvar and vaginal cancers are very uncommon, representing less than 5 percent of all gynecologic cancers. Vulvar cancers, affecting the skin around the vagina, are associated with the same virus involved with cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV). Vaginal cancers usually start from other organs and spread to the vagina.
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